Wellington Integrated Land Use – Transport – Environment model

This project undertakes integrated land use – transport – environment modelling for the Wellington region (WILUTE). This is used to evaluate individual transport and land use policies and scenarios, with a particular focus on environmental, energy and public health effects, and to study the relationship between land use and transport. This can also be used for other cities within and outside New Zealand.

How do current and future land use and transport policies affect economic activities? Affect local air quality and public health? Promote green transportation or home energy savings?


By applying a systematic approach, the modelling takes into account the complex interactions and synergies that occur between urban economic, social and spatial processes, household housing location choice, firm location choice, transportation and land use and environmental factors.

Article on the work >>


Pengjun Zhao, Ed Randal, Philippa Howden-Chapman


Uhrner U, E Randal, P Howden-Chapman (in press) Air pollution in windy Wellington and implications for urban planning, in Urban Environment, Springer

Grimes A, N Preval, C Young, R Arnold, T Denne, P Howden-Chapman, L Telfar-Barnard (2016) Does retrofitted insulation reduce household energy use? Theory and practice, The Energy Journal, 37:4

Mackenbach JD, E Randal, P Zhao, P Howden-Chapman (2016) The influence of urban land-use and public transport facilities on active commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active transport forecasting using the WILUTE model, (pdf) Sustainability 8, 242

Preval N (2015) Statistical and policy analysis of large-scale public health interventions, PhD, University of Otago

Howden-Chapman P, N Preval (2014) Cobenefits of insulating houses: Research evidence and policy implications, In R Cooper, E Burton, CL Cooper, eds. Wellbeing: A complete reference guide Vol. II: Wellbeing and the environment, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 607-625.

Preval N, P Howden-Chapman, A Grimes, C Young, T Denne, L Telfar-Barnard, R Arnold (2014) Evaluation of Warm up New Zealand: Heat Smart, Proceedings of the Otago Energy Research Centre (OERC) Symposium

Zhao P, Y Ji, K Li, X Feng (2014) An innovation in green transport for high-density cities: The rail transit-road system, in Yong Bai et al. eds. Challenges and Advances in Sustainable Transportation Systems, pp. 121-130, Proceedings of the 10th Asia Pacific Transportation Development Conference, Beijing, 25-27 May

Zhao P, J Pendlebury (2014) Spatial planning and transport energy transition towards a low carbon system, DisP-The Planning Review, November, 50(3): 33-43

Zhao P, R Chapman, E Randal, P Howden-Chapman (2013) Understanding resilient urban futures: A systemic modelling approach, Sustainability, 5: 3202-3223, doi:10.3390/su5073202

This paper outlines how the WILUTE model works and includes some initial results:

  • The model shows that policies designed to increase urban intensification in Wellington could save about 20,600 trips per day. Less travel by motor vehicle would reduce the carbon footprint of Wellington city in future.
  • The model analyses the vulnerability of people and houses and traffic to sea level rise. The effects of sea level rise may not be equally distributed between places and between different income and ethnic groups in Wellington. Those aged below 10, or over 65, or on low or no incomes are more likely to be vulnerable.